The grade of S (satisfactory) is a neutral passing grade. The grade of U (unsatisfactory) is used to indicate that no credit will be given for the course. These grades may be used for seminar courses provided they are taught on a non-competitive basis and all students in the class are graded on this basis. The S grade is the only passing grade accepted for special problem courses, individual research, and directed reading courses. Instructors and mentors are expected to notify the student of an impending U grade and plan remedial action well before the end of the semester. The S grade may not be used for lecture courses except with the expressed approval of the Graduate Dean.